Công bố quốc tế lĩnh vực môi trường số 30-2023 với những nội dung chính như sau:
Về quản lý môi trường
– Đóng góp xã hội của kinh tế tuần hoàn.
– Đánh giá tác động của hình thái đô thị đối với lượng khí thải carbon của tòa nhà thương mại ở quy mô khối – Một nghiên cứu về các tòa nhà thương mại ở Bắc Kinh.
– Đánh giá hạn hán kinh tế xã hội hai chiều dựa trên khuôn khổ kết hợp và tác động của các hoạt động của con người.
– Quyết định định giá tối ưu cho chứng chỉ xanh có thể mua bán được đối với năng lượng tái tạo dựa trên sự kết hợp carbon-điện.
– Làm thế nào để dung hòa vấn đề biến đổi khí hậu với tăng trưởng kinh tế? Tác động trung gian kép không gian của khí thải carbon và đầu tư nước ngoài.
– Đẩy nhanh quá trình trung hòa carbon có thể giúp hệ thống năng lượng của Trung Quốc phù hợp với nhiệt độ dưới 1,5°C.
– Có bất kỳ lợi ích nào trong việc áp dụng công nghệ xanh không? Khám phá những kết quả có lợi của các hoạt động thông minh-bền vững ở môi trường xây dựng Nigeria và Hồng Kông.
– Tăng cường tăng trưởng thực vật được điều chỉnh theo tình trạng phát triển đô thị.
– Ước tính tác động của việc tăng nhiệt độ môi trường đối với tình trạng kháng kháng sinh ở Trung Quốc: Một nghiên cứu sinh thái toàn quốc với phương pháp tiếp cận khác biệt trong khác biệt.
– Sự phát triển của một phương pháp tiếp cận rủi ro con người-môi trường tích hợp để ưu tiên sử dụng kháng sinh cho các quyết định chính sách.
Về môi trường đô thị
– Ô nhiễm vi nhựa ở các con sông của một thành phố đô thị và sự phụ thuộc ước tính của nó vào vùng đất phát triển xung quanh.
– Môi trường dân cư xanh hơn có liên quan đến sự đa dạng vi khuẩn gia tăng trong không khí xung quanh ngoài trời.
– Mối quan hệ nước-năng lượng-môi trường dưới các mô hình đô thị hóa khác nhau: Khung dựa trên độ nhạy để xác định các phản hồi chính.
– Đặc điểm thành phần hóa học của PM1 và PM2.5 và ảnh hưởng đến độ pH và hệ số tuyệt chủng ánh sáng dưới các mức độ ô nhiễm khác nhau ở Trịnh Châu, Trung Quốc.
– Đánh giá vòng đời của việc so sánh các hệ thống thu hồi chất dinh dưỡng khác nhau từ nước thải đô thị: Con đường hướng tới sự tự lực và bền vững.
– Vai trò của các hệ thống thoát nước đô thị bền vững khác nhau trong việc loại bỏ hạt vi nhựa khỏi dòng chảy đô thị: Đánh giá.
– Mô hình học máy để dự đoán tác động của điện khí hóa phương tiện đối với chất lượng không khí đô thị và các tác động liên quan đến sức khỏe con người.
– Sự thay đổi theo thời gian trong mối liên hệ giữa nhiệt độ và tỷ lệ tử vong do nguyên nhân cụ thể ở 15 thành phố của Đức.
– Phơi nhiễm ô nhiễm không khí trong thời gian dài và các dấu hiệu của sức khỏe tim mạch trong Nghiên cứu theo chiều dọc quốc gia về sức khỏe từ vị thành niên đến người trưởng thành (Thêm sức khỏe).
– Đánh giá đặc điểm hình thành và phát thải PCDD/Fs tại lò đốt chất thải rắn đô thị trong một năm.
Về môi trường khu công nghiệp
– EfectroH2O: Phát triển và đánh giá công nghệ xử lý mới cho nước thải công nghiệp có nồng độ muối cao.
– Kiên cường hay thân thiện với môi trường? Cả hai đều có thể xảy ra khi doanh nghiệp thủy sản chuẩn bị cho rủi ro dài hạn.
– Chiến lược làm giàu kim loại nặng trong quá trình O/H/O bao gồm tầng sôi sinh học để xử lý nước thải: Nghiên cứu điển hình về Cu và Zn.
– Đốt điện lai và xử lý qua trung gian laccase để khử màu hiệu quả nước thải được tạo ra từ các ngành công nghiệp dệt may.
– Con đường đương đại của ngành Hydro: Cơ hội và thách thức trong cách tiếp cận thân thiện với môi trường.
– Thực hiện các chiến lược làm mát/bôi trơn xanh trong ngành công nghiệp cắt kim loại: Một công nghệ tiên tiến hướng tới tương lai bền vững và những thách thức.
– Hiện trạng và xu hướng của hỗn hợp enzyme để sản xuất hiệu quả và sinh thái trong ngành công nghiệp giấy và bột giấy.
– So sánh các phương pháp điều phối kinh tế bị hạn chế về mặt môi trường tập trung và phi tập trung của các nhà máy phát điện đốt than: Một nghiên cứu điển hình cho Hàn Quốc.
– Đánh giá cấp thiết hiện trạng xử lý nước thải cao su: Nghiên cứu phát triển và triển vọng tương lai.
– Thực hiện các chiến lược làm mát/bôi trơn xanh trong ngành công nghiệp cắt kim loại: Một công nghệ tiên tiến hướng tới tương lai bền vững và những thách thức.
– Sự thay đổi theo mùa của thủy ngân trong bụi lắng đọng do ô nhiễm lò gạch ở Sonora, Mexico: Rủi ro sinh thái và ý nghĩa sức khỏe con người.
CHUYÊN TRANG QUẢN LÝ MÔI TRƯỜNG
Tạp chí Môi trường và Đô thị Việt Nam
Xin trân trọng giới thiệu!
QUẢN LÝ MÔI TRƯỜNG
1. Low ambient temperature increases the risk and burden of atrial fibrillation episodes: A nationwide case-crossover study in 322 Chinese cities
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 880, 1 July 2023, 163351
Non-optimum ambient temperature has recently been acknowledged as an independent risk factor for disease burden, but its impact on atrial fibrillation (AF) episodes was rarely evaluated.
To examine the associations between ambient non-optimum temperature and symptom onset of AF episodes and calculate the corresponding disease burden.
We conducted an individual-level, time-stratified, case-crossover analysis based on a nationwide registry, which comprises of 94,711 eligible AF patients from 1993 hospitals in 322 Chinese cities from January 2015 to December 2021. Multiple moving 24 h average temperatures prior to the symptom onset of AF episodes were calculated as lag days. The associations were analyzed using conditional logistic regression combined with distributed lag non-linear models with a duration of lag 0-7 days, after controlling for criteria air pollutants. Stratification analyses were performed to explore possible effect modifiers.
There was a monotonically increasing relationship of AF onset risk with decreasing temperature. The excess AF risk occurred at lag 1 d and lasted for 5 days. Nationally, the cumulative relative risk of AF episode onset associated with extremely low temperature (−9.3 °C) over lag 0-7 d was 1.25 (95 % confidence interval: 1.08, 1.45), compared with the reference temperature (31.5 °C). The exposure-response curve was steeper in the south than in the north where there was levelling-off at lower temperature. Nationally, 7.59 % of acute AF episodes could be attributable to non-optimum temperatures. The attributable fraction was larger for southern residents, males and patients <65 years.
This nationwide study provides novel and robust evidence that declining ambient temperature could increase the risk of AF episode onset. We also provide the first-hand evidence that a considerable proportion of acute AF episodes could be attributable to non-optimum temperatures.
2. Weather-driven synergistic water-economy-environment regulation of farmland ecosystems
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 880, 1 July 2023, 163342
Farmland ecosystems (FEs) constitute the most important source of food production, and water is one of the most important factors influencing FEs. The amount of water can affect the yield and thus the economic efficiency. Water migration can generate environmental effects through the migration of fertilizers. Interlinkages and constraints exist between the water, economy and environment, which require synergistic regulation.
Meteorological elements influence the reference crop uptake amount and thus the water cycle processes and are key drivers of regulation at the water-economy-environment nexus. However, the weather-driven, synergistic water-economy-environment regulation of FEs has not been sufficiently researched. As such, this paper employed a dynamic Bayesian prediction of the reference evapotranspiration (ETo) and a quantitative characterization of the total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) contents in agricultural crops and soils via field monitoring and indoor experimental analysis. Consequently, multiobjective optimization modeling was conducted to weigh the mutual trade-offs and constraints between water, the economy and the environment. The proposed method was verified via an example involving the modern agricultural high-tech demonstration park in Harbin, Heilongjiang Province, China.
The results indicated that (1) the effect of meteorological factors gradually decreased over time, but the prediction results were very accurate, and the higher the delay order of the dynamic Bayesian network (DBN) was, the more accurate the predictions; (2) ETo was significantly driven by meteorological elements, and the most important meteorological factor influencing ETo throughout the year was average temperature. When the average temperature was reduced by 10.0 %, ETo was reduced by 1.4 %, the required amount of irrigation water was reduced by 4.9 %, and the economic benefits of a single cube of water increased by 6.3 %; (3) resource-economy-environment multidimensional synergy enabled a 12.8 % reduction in agricultural ecosystem pollutant emissions, while the economic benefits per unit of water increased by 8.2 % and the system synergy increased by 23.2 %.
3. Three-dimensional spatiotemporal variability of CO2 in suburban and urban areas of Shaoxing City in the Yangtze River Delta, China
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 881, 10 July 2023, 163501
Metropolitan areas are the most anthropogenically active places but there is a lack of knowledge in carbon dioxide (CO2) spatial distribution in suburban and urban areas. In this study, the CO2 three-dimensional distributions were obtained from 92 times vertical unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) flight observations in Shaoxing suburbs and 90 times ground mobile observations in Shaoxing urban areas from Nov. 2021 to Nov. 2022. The vertical distribution showed that CO2 concentrations gradually decreased from 450 to 420 ppm with altitude from 0 to 500 m. CO2 vertical profile concentrations can be influenced by transport from multiple regions.
Based on the vertical observation data combining a potential source contribution function (PSCF) model, Shaoxing suburban CO2 were to be derived from urban areas in spring and autumn, while in winter and autumn were mainly from the long-transports from neighboring cities. Further the CO2 concentrations of urban horizontal distribution were observed in the range of 460-510 ppm through the mobile campaigns.
Urban CO2 were partly emitted from traffic exhausts and residential combustion. Overall, CO2 concentrations were observed to be lower in spring and summer due to the CO2 uptake by plant photosynthesis. This uptake was initially quantified and accounted for 4.2 % of total CO2 in suburbs and 3.3 % in urban areas by calculating the decrease in CO2 concentration from peak to trough in the daytime. Compared with the CO2 observed in the Lin’an background station, the maximum regional CO2 enhancement in Shaoxing urban areas reached to 8.9 % while the maximum in suburbs only 4.4 %. The contribution differences between urban and suburban areas to regional CO2 were relatively constant at 1.6 % in four seasons may be mainly ascribed to the contribution of long-range CO2 transport to the suburbs.
4. Temporal responses of PM2.5-bound trace elements and health risks to air control policy in a typical northern city in China during 2016-2020
Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 408, 1 July 2023, 137165
A package of macro-control policies at the national level was an effective way to control air pollution. It was of great practical significance to study the trends of pollution sources and source-specific health risks of PM2.5-bound trace elements under long-term policies implementation, which in turn can not only gain insight into the substantive impact of policies, but also provide accurate guidance for future environmental management. In this study, winter PM2.5 samples were collected in Baoding City in northern China from 2016 to 2020, and variations in pollution sources and source-specific health risks of trace elements in PM2.5 were comprehensively analyzed.
The results demonstrated that the concentrations of 10 elements displayed a declining trend, especially those of As, Sn, Zn, Sb, and Cd. By contrast, the concentration of Cr increased (except in 2020). Although the non-carcinogenic risk (NCR, including dust source) and carcinogenic risk (CR) from coal combustion and industrial emissions had decreased in the past five years, the NCR and CR still exceed the widely accept level for both adults and children in the winter of 2020. Coal combustion source was no longer the major contributor to the health risks caused by PM2.5-bound trace elements in winter, but vehicle related non-exhaust emissions have gradually become the main source of pollution.
5. The social contribution of the circular economy
Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 408, 1 July 2023, 137082
The social value of the circular economy (CE) has only been recently explored in the literature. To understand the social implications of the implementation of the CE, a semi-systematic literature review was completed evaluating the variables of equity, diversity, collaboration, quality of life, maturity, and governance as derived from a capabilities approach. At a societal level, this article explores the main demands and contributions of the CE to society and identifies the inconsistencies in the literature in assessing the CE as a strategy for development, counterposing views of the CE’s contribution to the socioeconomic system.
Furthermore, the analysis proposes a set of socioeconomic strategies that can aid a CE implementation. We expand the ‘rethink’ tactic of the 9Rs (Refuse, Rethink, Reduce, Reuse, Repair, Refurbish, Remanufacture, Repurpose, Recycle and Recover) to also rethinking: the economic model, discourse, management strategies, ownership, business models, care work and value chains as well as remembering, reorganizing, and revitalizing. Furthermore, we include nuances to the 9Rs, adding regeneration. The qualitative assessment combined with a topic model offered specific areas where the social dimensions can be prioritized; these include food systems, the built environment with localized urban sharing, value chains, bioeconomy and mitigating the environmental impact of industries such as fashion and construction.
6. Evaluation of the impact of urban morphology on commercial building carbon emissions at the block scale – A study of commercial buildings in Beijing
Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 408, 1 July 2023, 137191
With the rapid development of cities, the proportion of building carbon emissions in the total carbon emissions of cities is increasing, and the carbon emission intensity of commercial buildings is higher than that of other building types. The relationship between commercial building life-cycle carbon emissions and urban form factors at the block scale and the spatial differentiation of building carbon emissions in commercial blocks remain unclear. In this study, a calculation method for building life-cycle carbon emissions in urban commercial blocks was established using (1) GIS technology to establish a commercial district building model and urban form factors and (2) block model classification according to architectural layout and combination as well as typical layout pattern extraction through morphological type.
Additionally, (3) building life-cycle boundary and scenario parameters were determined, and the urban modeling interface (UMI) platform was used to numerically simulate block samples and typical layout modes for carbon emission calculation model construction. Beijing was chosen as a calculation and analysis example. The results indicated that building shape factor (BSF) is an important indicator of carbon emissions and that the impact of building density (BD) on carbon emissions is two-sided. The spatial differentiation of carbon emissions is obvious, which could provide effective suggestions for target building planning. By studying carbon emission indicators under typical layout modes, we found that low-rise building + tower-enclosed (L + T-E) and low-rise building + tower-determinant (L + T-D) are the best layout modes.
7. Bivariate socioeconomic drought assessment based on a hybrid framework and impact of human activities
Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 409, 10 July 2023, 137150
Socioeconomic drought generally occurs when water supply cannot satisfy water demand. This study proposed a hybrid framework for socioeconomic drought assessment, involving the construction of standardized water supply-demand reliability index (SWSDRI), truncation of drought events, and classification of bivariate drought levels. Using the run theory, socioeconomic drought events and their properties, including duration and severity, were characterized by the SWSDRI series. Then, bivariate socioeconomic drought levels, based on the Kendall frequency of drought duration and severity, were classified using the copula function.
Impacts of human activities on socioeconomic drought, including mainly the regulation of reservoirs and water consumption were quantified in the Dongjiang River basin, located in the south of China. Results showed that the framework, based on SWSDRI, facilitated the investigation of socioeconomic drought properties. The joint distributions of drought duration and severity, based on naturalized streamflow and under the individual and total impacts of human activities, were fitted well by the Archimedean copulas. Both drought duration and severity clearly exhibited the slight, moderate, severe, and extreme droughts classified by bivariate drought levels. For naturalized streamflow, socioeconomic drought occurred approximately once a year in the Dongjiang River basin.
Design values of the combination of drought duration and severity accounted for 3.4 months and 8.0 hundred million cubic meters of the boundary between slight and moderate droughts, 4.9 months and 13.6 hundred million cubic meters of the boundary between moderate and severe droughts, and 6.9 months and 20.0 hundred million cubic meters of the boundary between moderate and severe droughts, respectively.
Under the impact of human activities, in particular the regulation of reservoirs, socioeconomic drought was remarkably alleviated with a decrease of 45.8% in quantity. If the impact of water consumption was considered, drought events in quantitive terms remained almost unchanged, but more extreme and severe droughts occurred, because some slight, moderate, and severe droughts were aggravated by one level. Among the main reservoirs, the impact of the Xinfengjiang reservoir in the period of its operation was remarkable with a decrease in drought events by 47.7%. Under the impact of the Fengshuba reservoirs, drought events changed little in quantitive terms, but more slight droughts occurred because some moderate, severe, and extreme droughts were alleviated.
8. Factors influencing public support for the individual low-carbon behavior rewarding system: Evidence from a large-scale longitudinal survey in China
Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 409, 10 July 2023, 137187
The Individual Low-carbon Behavior Rewarding System (ILBRS) is a new Chinese environmental policy that aims to guide public participation in sustainable development through applying a range of incentive mechanisms. It is regarded as an important and effective way of reducing carbon emissions in response to climate change. However, knowledge of the influencing factors of support for the ILBRS is still scattered and lacks systematic analysis.
This study is one of the first literatures to explore public support for ILBRS through a large sample of longitudinal data relying on psychological theory. Based on the Responsible Environmental Behavior model, we established a mechanism that consists of three levels of factors affecting public support for the ILBRS. These factors involve individual characteristics, individual perception, and willingness of performing other low-carbon behaviors. The results of a longitudinal panel survey at one-year interval with 2,324 valid responses indicated that connectedness to nature, perception that climate change is happening, willingness to sort waste and to use green energy could significantly and positively predict public support for the ILBRS. Based on the findings of this study, we provide practical suggestions for policy makers to further improve the implementation of the ILBRS by raising public awareness of climate change and integrating it with other relevant environmental policies.
9. Optimal pricing decision of tradable green certificate for renewable energy power based on carbon-electricity coupling
Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 410, 15 July 2023, 137111
With the goals of carbon peaking and carbon neutrality, China’s renewable energy has entered a stage of rapid development. The government gives financial and power-rate subsidies to clean power while putting great support on its construction. However, there is currently a big gap in the government’s subsidy on new energy power generation, which is challenging to meet the demand for renewable energy consumption and sustainable development. In this regard, participating in the market is inevitable for renewable energy development, which is significant for promoting renewable energy power consumption and alleviating the subsidy dilemma.
Considering the market-based mechanism, this paper regards the electricity market, the tradable green certificate market, and the carbon emissions allowance trading market as an integrated energy platform system that couples carbon emissions with electricity, linking generators and retailers. We consider two scenarios, including green electricity-green certificate separation and unity, and introduce the intermittency of new energy generation to construct the optimal pricing decision for this platform supply chain. We explore the optimal price of tradable green certificate for renewable power and the equilibrium demand for green power and thermal power in two circumstances.
The results show that: (1) there is an equilibrium solution in various conditions. Moreover, the optimal price of green certificate in condition two, namely green electricity-green certificate unity, is higher when the on-grid price of green electricity and thermal one and the substitution effect of these two powers satisfy a certain constraint, which can stimulate generator and retailer to generate and consume green electricity as much as possible. (2) The price of carbon emissions and the responsibility weight of renewable electricity consumption both have a positive influence on the optimal price of green certificate and the share of equilibrium demands for green power, whereas intermittency of new energy generation has a negative impact on them. Adjusting the carbon price and incentive responsibility weights and taking relevant measures to reduce intermittency in different situations help to reduce thermal power demand and promote green power consumption. (3) When the prices of green certificates in diverse circumstances are in a certain interval, the impact intensity of changes in green certificate price on electricity demand will arise. It is conducive to performing the facilitative role of green certificate price on the power market better and stimulates the generation and consumption of new energy power in the carbon-electricity coupling market.
10. Clean manufacturing structure and its impact on water quality: A case study of Northeast China
Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 411, 20 July 2023, 137323
Manufacturing structures that emit high levels of pollution may put tremendous pressure on water environment. Although studies have explored the relationship between industrial structure and the environment across industries, few literatures discuss the relationship between the cleanliness of manufacturing structures and water quality on a macro scale. This paper presents an indicator of clean manufacturing structures based on a dataset of 43,112 valid enterprise cases, and a water quality indicator based on data from 558 cases of chemical oxygen demand. Taking Northeast China as the study area, spatio-temporal diversity and evolution were analysed, and the mechanism of the effect of clean manufacturing structures on water quality was investigated.
The empirical results indicate a significant negative correlation between the cleanliness level of these structures and chemical oxygen demand concentration. Through spatial autocorrelation analysis, we found a significant negative correlation between the spatial distribution of clean manufacturing structures and that of water quality, especially in the central city linkage zone, the West Liao River Basin, and the Yalu River Basin in Northeast China. Improvement of water quality requires optimising the clean structure of manufacturing industries and reducing the proportion of regional high-pollution industries. In addition, spatial lag model results proved that per capita gross domestic product and population density are also significantly correlated with water quality. This study reveals how clean manufacturing structures affect water quality, and the findings can support decision-making in economic and environmental management at the macro scale.
11. How to reconcile the climate change issue with economic growth? Spatial dual mediating effects of carbon emissions and foreign investment
Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 411, 20 July 2023, 137285
Climate change has steadily gained attention as the global economy has grown more quickly, preventing continued high-quality economic growth. In this context, the eco-innovation concept has recently risen to the top of the list of academic research topics since it is a crucial tool that combines reduced environmental effects with a favourable socioeconomic impact. Nevertheless, the environmental situation is not improving despite the increasing eco-innovation level. From one perspective, instead of concentrating on how eco-innovation lessens carbon emissions, this research explores the indirect effect of carbon emissions on the GDP-eco-innovation nexus.
From another perspective, since FDI might lessen harmful pollution, this research analyses the indirect effect of FDI on the economic growth-eco-innovation nexus. Therefore, this paper highlights the relationship between eco-innovation and economic growth (GDP), considering the dual mediating roles of carbon emissions and FDI. First, we examine the effects of GDP on eco-innovation activities in nine MENA countries from 2000 to 2019 using the geographic Durbin model based on spatial panel data. Second, this paper analysed the dual mediating effect of carbon emissions and FDI using the spatial stepwise regression model. The findings of this paper are as follows: (i) GDP positively impacts eco-innovation activities, and (ii) carbon emissions and FDI mediate the GDP-eco-innovation nexus. Therefore, GDP, FDI, and carbon emissions are significant drivers of eco-innovation. This research represents an essential step towards a better understanding of the need to support the transition to sustainability.
12. Accelerating carbon neutrality could help China’s energy system align with below 1.5 °C
Journal of Environmental Management, Volume 337, 1 July 2023, 117753
To support the achievement of the Paris Agreement’s 1.5 °C global warming threshold, China aims to peak CO2 emissions before 2030 and achieve carbon neutrality before 2060. However, the specific carbon neutrality pathway remains to be designed. By applying a refined Chinese version of Global Change Analysis Model, this study examines implications of four illustrative carbon neutrality scenarios for aligning China’s energy system with below 1.5 °C by 2100. The results feature a trade-off between China’s ambition to transform its energy system toward mid-century and its reliance on carbon dioxide removal (CDR) after carbon neutrality. From a full time perspective until 2100, accelerating carbon neutrality could help China’s energy system align with below 1.5 °C.
Compared to a 2060 carbon neutrality scenario, a 2050 carbon neutrality scenario reduces China’s total mitigation costs between 2021 and 2100 by 1.04% of GDP, reduces reliance on CDR by 36%, and provides some additional co-benefits, such as reduced air pollutants. However, special attention needs to be paid to the fact that accelerating carbon neutrality poses greater challenges and costs to China in overcoming development inertia and restructuring its energy system over the next 30-40 years. Compared to a 2060 carbon neutrality scenario, a 2050 scenario increases China’s mitigation costs by a factor of 1.13 between 2021 and 2050. This study suggests through quantitative evidence that China could accelerate emissions reductions and energy system transformation to achieve carbon neutrality, based on its national circumstances and capabilities and international support.
13. Are there any gains in green-tech adoption? Unearthing the beneficial outcomes of smart-sustainable practices in Nigeria and Hong Kong built environment
Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 410, 15 July 2023, 137280
Implementing smart-sustainable practices (SSP) is crucial to achieving environmentally-friendly buildings and cities. Adequate awareness and understanding of its benefits and impacts are essential for maximizing its implementation. Hence, this study explores and establishes the key SSP benefits in the built environment of Hong Kong and Nigeria. Factors were identified through literature survey, then data was collected using questionnaires and analysed with various methods. The common key beneficial outcomes (BT) in both contexts relate to better design products with low environmental impact and enhancement of project quality and productivity.
Three main clusters were established: sustainable design and resource management, innovation and business performance, and green initiatives and productivity. Based on the rank agreement analysis, there is high consensus between Hong Kong and Nigeria experts on two clustered BTs of green initiatives and sustainable products (57%) and project productivity and efficiency (100%). It is important to be cautious when applying these findings beyond the specific contexts of Nigeria and Hong Kong. The study findings have provided practical and objective means to predict and assess the probable impacts of SSP implementation while providing clients, contractors, policymakers, and practitioners with pragmatic tools and effective recommendations to promote the delivery of smart, sustainable projects worldwide.
14. Vegetation growth enhancement modulated by urban development status
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 883, 20 July 2023, 163626
Cities are natural laboratories for studying the vegetation response to global change due to their own climatic, atmospheric, and biological conditions. However, whether the urban environment promoted vegetation growth is still uncertain. Using the Yangtze River Delta (YRD), an economic powerhouse of modern China, as a case study, this paper investigated the impact of urban environment on vegetation growth at three scales: cities, sub-cities (rural-urban gradient) -pixels. Based on the satellite observations of vegetation growth indicated during 2000-2020, we explored the direct (replacement of original land by impervious surfaces) and indirect impact (e.g., climatic environment) of urbanization on vegetation growth and their trends with urbanization level.
We found that significant greening accounted for 43.18 %, and significant browning accounted for 3.60 % of the pixels in the YRD. Urban area was turning green faster than suburban area. Moreover, land use change intensity was a representation of the direct impact of urbanization. The direct impact of urbanization on vegetation growth was positively correlated with the intensity of land use change. Furthermore, vegetation growth enhancement due to indirect impact occurred in 31.71 %, 43.90 % and 41.46 % of the YRD cities in 2000, 2010 and 2020. And vegetation enhancement occurred in 94.12 % of highly urbanized cities in 2020, while in medium and low urbanization cities, the averaged indirect impact was near zero or even negative, proving that vegetation growth enhancement was modulated by urban development status. Also, the growth offset (τ) was most pronounced in high urbanization cities (4.92 %), but there was no growth compensation in medium urbanization cities (−4.48 %) and low urbanization cities (−57.47 %). When urbanization intensity reached a threshold value of 50 % in highly urbanized cities, the growth offset (τ) tended to saturate and remained unchanged. Our findings have important implications for understanding the vegetation response to continuing urbanization process and future climate change.
15. Estimating the effect of increasing ambient temperature on antimicrobial resistance in China: A nationwide ecological study with the difference-in-differences approach
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 882, 15 July 2023, 163518
Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) and the possible consequences of rising ambient temperatures brought on by global warming have been extensively discussed. However, the epidemiological evidence on the effects of temperature on AMR is rare and little is known about the role of socioeconomic inequities. This ecological study obtained 31 provinces AMR data of Escherichia Coli (E. coli) from the China Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance System (CARSS) over the period from 2014 to 2020, which were linked to the meteorological and socioeconomic data published in the China Statistical Yearbook.
Modified difference-in-differences (DID) analyses were performed to estimate the effect of ambient temperature on AMR of E. coli to third-generation cephalosporins (ceftriaxone and cefotaxime), carbapenems, and quinolones, adjusting for variations in meteorological and socioeconomic factors. We estimated that every 1 °C increase in average ambient temperature was associated with 2.71 % (95 % confidence interval [CI]: 1.20-4.24), 32.92 % (95 % CI: 15.62-52.81), and 1.81 % (95 % CI: 0.47-3.16) increase in the prevalence of E. coli resistance to third-generation cephalosporins (ceftriaxone and cefotaxime), carbapenems and quinolones, respectively.
The link was more profound in the regions with lower temperature and a median level of average humidity, and the regions with lower income, lower expenditure (in economics), lower health resources, and lower hospital admissions.
Neither the replacement of the temperature variable nor the alternative approaches for confounding adjustment changed the positive association between ambient temperature and AMR. In general, there exists a positive association between ambient temperature and AMR, although the strength of such an association varies by socioeconomic and health services factors. The association is possibly nonlinear, especially for E. coli resistance to third-generation cephalosporins. The findings suggest that AMR control programs should explicitly incorporate weather patterns to increase their effectiveness.
16. The development of an integrated environment-human risk approach for the prioritisation of antibiotics for policy decisions
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 880, 1 July 2023, 163301
Environmental contamination with antibiotic residues has caused significant concern. Antibiotics are continually emitted into the environment which potentially threatens environmental and human health, particularly, the risk in the development of antibiotic resistance. A list of priority antibiotics in the environment is essential for eco-pharmacovigilance and policy decisions.
This study developed a prioritisation system of antibiotics based on their integrated environmental (resistance and ecotoxicity) and human health (resistance and toxicity) risks, considering various aquatic environmental compartments. Data obtained by conducting a systematic review of the literature of antibiotic residues in various aquatic environmental compartments in China was used as an example.
The list of priority antibiotics was created by ranking the antibiotics in descending order, based on the risk scores of their a) overall risk, (b) antibiotic resistance risk to environment, (c) ecotoxicity risk, (d) overall environmental risk, (e) antibiotic resistance risk to human health, (f) toxicity risk to human health and (g) overall human health risk.
Ciprofloxacin posed the greatest risk and chloramphenicol posed the least risk. The output from this research can be used to implement eco-pharmacovigilance and to develop targeted policies which would prevent / minimise the environmental and human health risks from antibiotic residues. The use of this list of priority antibiotics will allow for a country / region / setting to (a) optimise the use of antibiotics and their prescribing practices, (b) create effective monitoring and mitigation strategies, (c) minimise the discharge of antibiotic residues and (d) focus research efforts.
MÔI TRƯỜNG ĐÔ THỊ
1. Microplastics pollution in the rivers of a metropolitan city and its estimated dependency on surrounding developed land
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 880, 1 July 2023, 163268
The spatial distribution and abundance of suspected microplastics (SMPs) in the surface water of a metropolitan city, as represented by four Hong Kong rivers, was studied during the dry season. Shing Mun River (SM), Lam Tsuen River (LT), and Tuen Mun River (TM) are located in urbanized areas, and SM and TM are tidal rivers.
The fourth river, Silver River (SR) is situated in a rural area. TM had a significantly higher SMP abundance (53.80 ± 20.67 n/L) than the other rivers. The SMP abundance increased from upstream to downstream in non-tidal rivers (LT and SR), but not in tidal rivers (TM and SM), probably due to the tidal influence and a more homogeneous urban development along the tidal rivers. Inter-site differences in the SMP abundance were strongly correlated with the built area ratio (defined as the percentage of surrounding developed land area), human activities, and the nature of the river. About half (48.72 %) of the SMPs were <250 μm.
Fibers and fragments were most abundant (>98 %), with most of them being transparent (58.54 %), black (14.68 %), or blue (12.12 %). Polyethylene terephthalate (26.96 %) and polyethylene (20.70 %) were the most common polymers. However, the MP abundance could be overestimated due to the presence of natural fibers. By contrast, an underestimation of the MP abundance could result from a smaller volume of water samples collected, due to a low filtration efficiency caused by high organic content and particle concentrations in the water. A more effective solid waste management strategy and upgrading of the sewage treatment facilities for removing microplastics are recommended to ameliorate the microplastic pollution in local rivers.
2. Greener residential environment is associated with increased bacterial diversity in outdoor ambient air
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 880, 1 July 2023, 163266
In urban areas, exposure to greenspace has been found to be beneficial to human health. The biodiversity hypothesis proposed that exposure to diverse ambient microbes in greener areas may be one pathway leading to health benefits such as improved immune system functioning, reduced systemic inflammation, and ultimately reduced morbidity and mortality.
Previous studies observed differences in ambient outdoor bacterial diversity between areas of high and low vegetated land cover but didn’t focus on residential environments which are important to human health. This research examined the relationship between vegetated land and tree cover near residence and outdoor ambient air bacterial diversity and composition.
We used a filter and pump system to collect ambient bacteria samples outside residences in the Raleigh-Durham-Chapel Hill metropolitan area and identified bacteria by 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing. Geospatial quantification of total vegetated land or tree cover was conducted within 500 m of each residence. Shannon’s diversity index and weighted UniFrac distances were calculated to measure α (within-sample) and β (between-sample) diversity, respectively. Linear regression for α-diversity and permutational analysis of variance (PERMANOVA) for β-diversity were used to model relationships between vegetated land and tree cover and bacterial diversity.
Data analysis included 73 ambient air samples collected near 69 residences. Analysis of β-diversity demonstrated differences in ambient air microbiome composition between areas of high and low vegetated land (p = 0.03) and tree cover (p = 0.07). These relationships remained consistent among quintiles of vegetated land (p = 0.03) and tree cover (p = 0.008) and continuous measures of vegetated land (p = 0.03) and tree cover (p = 0.03). Increased vegetated land and tree cover were also associated with increased ambient microbiome α-diversity (p = 0.06 and p = 0.03, respectively). To our knowledge, this is the first study to demonstrate associations between vegetated land and tree cover and the ambient air microbiome’s diversity and composition in the residential ecosystem.
3. Characteristics and sources of PM2.5-bound elements in Shanghai during autumn and winter of 2019: Insight into the development of pollution episodes
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 881, 10 July 2023, 163432
Elemental composition of PM2.5 dispersed in the atmosphere has received increasing attention due to its health effect and catalytic activities. In this study, the characteristics and source apportionment of PM2.5-bound elements were investigated using hourly measurements. K is the most abundant metal element, followed by Fe > Ca > Zn > Mn > Ba > Pb > Cu > Cd. With an average of 8.8 ± 4.1 ng m−3, Cd was the only element whose pollution level exceeded the limits of Chinese standards and WHO guidelines. The concentrations of As, Se, and Pb doubled in December compared to November, indicating a large increase in coal consumption in winter.
The enrichment factors of As, Se, Hg, Zn, Cu, Cd, and Ag were larger than 100, indicating that anthropogenic activities greatly affected them. Ship emissions, coal combustion, soil dust, vehicle emissions, and industrial emissions were identified as major sources of trace elements. In November, the pollution from coal burning and industrial activities was significantly reduced, demonstrating the remarkable achievement of coordinated control measures. For the first time, hourly measurements of PM2.5-bound elements and secondary sulfate and nitrate were used to investigate the development of dust and PM2.5 events.
During a dust storm event, secondary inorganic salts, potentially toxic elements, and crustal elements sequentially reached peak concentrations, indicating different source origins and formation mechanisms. During the winter PM2.5 event, the sustained increase of trace elements was attributed to the accumulation of local emissions, while regional transport was responsible for the explosive growth before the end of the event. This study highlights the important role of hourly measurement data in distinguishing local accumulation from regional and long-range transport.
4. Spatial distribution, impact factors, and potential health implications of trace elements in human hair from capital residents in China
Chemosphere, Volume 328, July 2023, 138355
We analyzed the levels, spatial distribution, impact factors, source apportionment, and potential health implications of trace elements (V, Zn, Cu, Mn, Ni, Mo, and Co) in 1202 human hair samples of urban residents aged 4-55 from 29 cities in China. The median values of seven trace elements in hair were found in the following increasing order: Co (0.02 μg/g) < V (0.04 μg/g) < Mo (0.05 μg/g) < Ni (0.32 μg/g) < Mn (0.74 μg/g) < Cu (9.63 μg/g) < Zn (157 μg/g). The spatial distribution of these trace elements in the hair from the six geographical subdivisions varied depending on the exposure sources and impact factors.
Principal component analysis (PCA) revealed that Cu, Zn, and Co in the hair samples of urban residents were primarily derived from food, whereas V, Ni, and Mn were attributed to industrial activities and food. Majority of the hair samples (up to 81%) from North China (NC) exceeded the recommended value for V content, whereas up to 59.2%, 51.3%, and 31.6% samples from Northeast China (NE) exceeded the recommended values for Co, Mn, and Ni contents, respectively. The levels of Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, and Zn were significantly higher in female hair than those in male hair, whereas the levels of Mo were higher in male than in female hair (p < 0.01). Furthermore, significantly higher Cu/Zn ratios were observed in the hair of male residents than those in the female residents (p < 0.001), indicating a higher health risk for male residents.
5. Water-energy-environment nexus under different urbanization patterns: A sensitivity-based framework for identifying key feedbacks
Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 408, 1 July 2023, 137243
Nexus approaches, aiming at the complex connections among the correlative systems, provide an effective method for analyzing coevolution processes. In the context of urbanization, water, energy, and environment (W-E-E) systems are increasingly connected thus can be profiled as a W-E-E nexus. However, research on urban water-energy interactions and their impact on the environment is still in its infancy. In addition, a generic framework for modeling W-E-E nexus that includes dynamic feedbacks between human and natural systems remains elusive.
In an attempt to fill this gap, this paper proposes a sensitivity-based framework consisting of four components: the water balance model, the energy balance model, the environmental response model, and the urbanization model. Community sensitivity serves as the missing link, tying together two feedback loops driven by economy and environment respectively. To demonstrate how such a framework could be applied, Wuhan city was selected as a case study and analyzed for its coevolution under three scenarios: extensive development, common development, and sustainable development.
The results show that the proposed framework is competent in modeling the W-E-E nexus in Wuhan. The coevolution process is broadly divided into four cyclic stages (expansion, degeneration, convalescence, and stabilization) and environmental recovery consumes decades or more regardless of the development pattern. However, development patterns exert a salient effect on community sensitivity, with +294.4%, +5.5%, and −17.4% for extensive, common, and sustainable development patterns during the simulation period respectively. And only under sustainable development, can Wuhan anticipate achieving the goal of carbon neutrality by the 2060s. It is hoped that this framework will aid our understanding of the fundamental interactions in this complex relationship and allow researchers to improve W-E-E nexus modeling through better capture of the key elements in the feedback loops.
6. Chemical-composition characteristics of PM1 and PM2.5 and effects on pH and light-extinction coefficients under different pollution levels in Zhengzhou, China
Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 409, 10 July 2023, 137274
Atmospheric particulate matter (PM) is a significant pollutant in the atmosphere. An increase in PM2.5 concentration notably diminishes atmospheric visibility and leads to haze formation. PM1, a type of atmospheric PM with smaller particle size, has a more pronounced effect on visibility and aerosol pH compared to PM2.5. In this study, PM1 and PM2.5 samples were collected in August, November, and December of 2020, as well as in April of 2021 in Zhengzhou.
The chemical composition, aerosol pH, and light-extinction coefficients (bext) of PM1 and PM2.5 were analyzed based on the aerosol concentrations in three pollution categories. Throughout the sampling period, the average mass concentrations of PM1 and PM2.5 were 56.2 and 71.9 μg m−3, respectively, with nitrate constituting 24.3% of PM2.5. This highlights the severe submicron-level particulate pollution in Zhengzhou.
Differences in the composition of PM1 and PM2.5 led to variations in aerosol water content, but the combined effect on aerosol pH was minimal. PM1 displayed a stronger negative correlation with visibility because SNA (NO3−, SO42−, and NH4+) was primarily concentrated in PM1. The bext of nitrate consistently increased during the pollution period, reaching 58% during the moderate pollution phase.
This result suggests that the extinction contribution of nitrate was the main factor contributing to the decreased visibility in Zhengzhou. Reducing nitrogen oxide emissions can lower PM2.5 concentrations and enhance visibility. Additionally, controlling nitrate production can achieve a secondary reduction in aerosol concentration by decreasing the aerosol water content, which in turn reduces the secondary formation of PM. This study is beneficial for formulating measures to reduce the concentration of PM2.5 and reducing pollution.
7. Life cycle assessment of comparing different nutrient recovery systems from municipal wastewater: A path towards self-reliance and sustainability
Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 410, 15 July 2023, 137331
Nutrient recovery systems can help to mitigate the negative effects of N and P in WW (wastewater), which when not recovered causes eutrophication in aquatic ecosystems. Using SimaPro (V9.3), the lifecycle assessment (LCA) of four nutrient recovery systems and sewage treatment plant (STP) were compared in this study.
The findings showed that a fuel cell with a single-pot WW treatment system can function as a negative emission system with a global warming potential (GWP) of −234 gCO2 Eq./m3 of WW. Nutrient recovery reduces carbon footprint by 56-98% when compared to traditional fertilizers like diammonium phosphate (DAP) and urea. One of the main conclusions of this research was that single-pot systems perform better for the environment than add-on systems, which suggests that microalgae could perform better for the environment in a single-pot system. Recovering nutrients from WW not only improves self-reliance in the economy by decrementing the fertilizer import but also saves the environment.
8. The role of different sustainable urban drainage systems in removing microplastics from urban runoff: A review
Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 411, 20 July 2023, 137197
Urban runoff is considered an important source of microplastic pollution. This review provides an in-depth analysis of studies that assess the role of sustainable urban drainage systems (SUDS) as nature-based solutions, to tackle this worldwide problem. Sedimentation-based systems, such as wetlands or ponds, and filtration-based systems, such as bioretention cells or gardens, as well as permeable pavements have been shown to effectively retain a significant number of MPs.
Nevertheless, it is considered that efficiencies can be enhanced through some design improvements, proposed in this review. Polypropylene, Polyethylene terephthalate, Polyethylene and Polystyrene, are the most frequent and abundant polymers in urban runoff, due to high consumption in a wide variety of urban products and activities. Smaller particles and fibers are the most challenging fraction.
Maximum rainfall intensity, antecedent dry days, rainfall depth, land use, dwelling density, imperviousness, hydraulic loading, SUDS age, and the presence of forebays or gross pollutant traps have been influential variables on the abundance of MPs in some of the studies, although not always statistically significant. The assessment of the fate of MPs by some studies indicates that they are more concentrated in the sediment or filter media near the inlet, as well as in the shallower layers.
The existence of a similar behaviour and a correlation between total suspended solids and microplastic concentration, makes them a potential indicator of microplastic pollution. A wide variability of microplastic detection methods and reporting data format has been found, which makes it difficult to draw global conclusions. Measures to reduce microplastic pollution in urban areas and subjects for further research are finally suggested.
9. Does the low-carbon city pilot policy work in China? A company-level analysis based on the PSM-DID model
Journal of Environmental Management, Volume 337, 1 July 2023, 117725
To reduce carbon emissions and pursue sustainable economic development, China’s central government formulated the low-carbon city pilot (LCCP) policy. Current studies focus primarily on the impact of the policy at the macro level (provinces and cities). So far, no study has looked at the impact of the LCCP policy on companies’ environmental expenditures. Besides, as the LCCP policy is a weak-constraining central policy, it is interesting to see how it works at the company level. We employ company-level empirical data and the Propensity Score Matching – Difference in Differences (PSM-DID) method, which outperforms the traditional DID model in avoiding sample selection bias, to address the above issues.
We concentrate on the second phase of the LCCP policy from 2010 to 2016, encompassing 197 listed companies in China’s secondary and transportation industries. Our statistical results show that if the listed company’s host city has piloted the LCCP policy, the company’s environmental expenditures are reduced by 0.91 points at the 1% significance level. The above finding calls attention to the policy-implementation gap between the central and the local governments in China, which may make those weak-constraining central policies like the LCCP policy have purpose-defeating outcomes at the company level.
10. Machine learning model to predict vehicle electrification impacts on urban air quality and related human health effects
Environmental Research, Volume 228, 1 July 2023, 115835
Air pollution is a prevailing environmental problem in cities worldwide. The future vehicle electrification (VE), which in Europe will be importantly fostered by the ban of thermal engines from 2035, is expected to have an important effect on urban air quality. Machine learning models represent an optimal tool for predicting changes in air pollutants concentrations in the context of future VE.
For the city of Valencia (Spain), a XGBoost (eXtreme Gradient Boosting package) model was used in combination with SHAP (SHapley Additive exPlanations) analysis, both to investigate the importance of different factors explaining air pollution concentrations and predicting the effect of different levels of VE. The model was trained with 5 years of data including the COVID-19 lockdown period in 2020, in which mobility was strongly reduced resulting in unprecedent changes in air pollution concentrations.
The interannual meteorological variability of 10 years was also considered in the analyses. For a 70% VE, the model predicted: 1) improvements in nitrogen dioxide pollution (−34% to −55% change in annual mean concentrations, for the different air quality stations), 2) a very limited effect on particulate matter concentrations (−1 to −4% change in annual means of PM2.5 and PM10), 3) heterogeneous responses in ground-level ozone concentrations (−2% to +12% change in the annual means of the daily maximum 8-h average concentrations).
Even at a high VE increase of 70%, the 2021 World Health Organization Air Quality Guidelines will be exceeded for all pollutants in some stations. VE has a potentially important impact in terms of reducing NO2-associated premature mortality, but complementary strategies for reducing traffic and controlling all different air pollution sources should also be implemented to protect human health.
11. Temporal variation in the association between temperature and cause-specific mortality in 15 German cities
Environmental Research, Volume 229, 15 July 2023, 115668
There is limited evidence of temporal changes in the association between air temperature and the risk of cause-specific cardiovascular [CVD] and respiratory [RD] mortality.
We explored temporal variations in the association between short-term exposures to air temperature and non-accidental and cause-specific CVD and RD mortality in the 15 largest German cities over 24 years (1993-2016) using time-stratified time series analysis. We applied location-specific confounder-adjusted Poisson regression with distributed lag non-linear models with a lag period of 14 days to estimate the temperature-mortality associations. We then pooled the estimates by a multivariate meta-analytical model. We analysed the whole study period and the periods 1993-2004 and 2005-16, separately. We also carried out age- and sex-stratified analysis. Cold and heat effects are reported as relative risk [RR] at the 1st and the 99th temperature percentile, relative to the 25th and the 75th percentile, respectively.
We analysed a total of 3,159,292 non-accidental, 1,063,198 CVD and 183,027 RD deaths. Cold-related RR for CVD mortality was seen to rise consistently over time from 1.04 (95% confidence interval [95% CI] 1.02, 1.06) in the period 1993-2004 to 1.10 (95% CI 1.09, 1.11) in the period 2005-16. A similar increase in cold-related RR was also observed for RD mortality with risk increasing from 0.99 (95% CI 0.96, 1.03) to 1.07 (95% CI 1.03, 1.10). Cold-related ischemic, cerebrovascular, and heart failure mortality risk were seen to be increasing over time. Similarly, COPD, the commonly speculated driver of heat-related RD mortality was found to have a constant heat-related risk over time. Males were increasingly vulnerable to cold with time for all causes of death. Females showed increasing sensitivity to cold for CVD mortality. Our results indicated a significant increased cold and heat vulnerability of the youngest age-groups (<64) to non-accidental and RD mortality, respectively. Similarly, the older age group (>65) were found to have significantly increased susceptibility to cold for CVD mortality.
We found evidence of rising population susceptibility to both heat- and cold-related CVD and RD mortality risk from 1993 to 2016. Climate change mitigation and targeted adaptation strategies might help to reduce the number of temperature-related deaths in the future.
12. Long-term air pollution exposure and markers of cardiometabolic health in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health)
Environment International, Volume 177, July 2023, 107987
Air pollution exposure is associated with cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Although exposure to air pollution early in life may represent a critical window for development of cardiovascular disease risk factors, few studies have examined associations of long-term air pollution exposure with markers of cardiovascular and metabolic health in young adults.
By combining health data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health) with air pollution data from the Fused Air Quality Surface using Downscaling (FAQSD) archive, we: (1) calculated multi-year estimates of exposure to ozone (O3) and particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter ≤ 2.5 µm (PM)
Add Health is a nationally representative longitudinal cohort study of over 20,000 adolescents aged 12-19 in the United States (US) in 1994-95 (Wave I). Participants have been followed through adolescence and into adulthood with five in-home interviews. Estimated daily concentrations of O3 and PM2.5 at census tracts were obtained from the FAQSD archive and used to generate tract-level annual averages of O3 and PM2.5 concentrations. We estimated associations between average O3 and PM2.5 exposures from 2002 to 2007 and markers of cardiometabolic health measured at Wave IV (2008-09), including hypertension, hyperlipidemia, body mass index (BMI), diabetes, C-reactive protein, and metabolic syndrome.
The final sample size was 11,259 individual participants. The average age of participants at Wave IV was 28.4 years (range: 24-34 years). In models adjusting for age, race/ethnicity, and sex, long-term O3 exposure (2002-07) was associated with elevated odds of hypertension, with an odds ratio (OR) of 1.015 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.011, 1.029); obesity (1.022 [1.004, 1.040]); diabetes (1.032 [1.009,1.054]); and metabolic syndrome (1.028 [1.014, 1.041]); PM2.5 exposure (2002-07) was associated with elevated odds of hypertension (1.022 [1.001, 1.045]).
Findings suggest that long-term ambient air pollution exposure, particularly O3 exposure, is associated with cardiometabolic health in early adulthood.
13. Impacts of urban densification and vertical growth on urban heat environment: A case study in the 4th Ring Road Area, Zhengzhou, China
Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 410, 15 July 2023, 137247
Rapid urbanisation has significant impacts on the surface morphology, local regional climate, and thermal environment in urban areas. Previous studies have focused on horizontal urban expansion. Here we analyse both the impacts of horizontal sprawl and vertical changes on the urban thermal environment.
We develop a method to understand the relationship between urban morphology and urban heat. First, we classified urban land-use and stereo image pairs to extract building heights. We then determined the links between the land surface temperature (LST) characteristics and the variations in building density (BD) and building height (BH).
The method is applied to the 4th Ring Road Area, Zhengzhou City, China, that is shown to have experienced significant 3D expansion between 2013 and 2017, with a widespread shift from low to high BD, a marked decrease in single-storey buildings, and a sharp increase in high rise (≥50 m) buildings. However, the relationship between BH, BD and LST differs between summer and winter, is non-monotonic and switches directionality at BD = 0.2 and BH = 24 m and 100 m.
The exact nature of these relationships, and in particular the inflection points that are critical to building density and height decisions, will vary between cities. However, the method provides critical information for decision-makers seeking to address the challenge of climate change within the spatial planning process.
14. Spatiotemporal evolution and influence mechanism of the carbon footprint of energy consumption at county level in the Yellow River Basin
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 883, 20 July 2023, 163710
Implementing emission reduction policies at county level is important to realize high-quality development in the Yellow River Basin and achieve national “carbon peaking” and “carbon neutrality” goals. Based on remote-sensing data of night light, net primary productivity, and land use, the present study utilized the light‑carbon conversion and carbon footprint measurement models to quantify the carbon footprint of energy consumption.
An exploratory spatiotemporal data analysis method was implemented to analyze the spatiotemporal evolution path. Panel quantile regression and spatiotemporal transition-nested models were used to reveal the influence mechanism of the spatiotemporal evolution of the carbon footprint. The following results were obtained. (1) The carbon footprint of counties increased from 2001 to 2020. Counties with high‑carbon footprint diffused around the “one center and two axes”.
Carbon-deficit counties exhibited a diffused trend towards the west. In 2020, 506 counties exhibited carbon deficits, and the carbon balance of the ecosystem was severely unbalanced. (2) The carbon footprint showed evident path dependence and Matthew effect. The high‑carbon footprint lock-in area comprising 177 counties is a challenging zone for governance. The 86 counties that exhibit carbon footprint changes are the key zones to drive the carbon footprint changes in the Basin.
The change direction of the county’s carbon footprint type, with evident spatial correlation characteristics, is in accordance with adjacent counties. (3) The carbon footprint spatiotemporal transition types and influence mechanisms in counties exhibited significant differences, with the coexistence of low-carbon footprint driving, low-carbon footprint restriction, high-carbon footprint driving and high-carbon footprint restriction modes. As the influence mechanisms of different modes and the paths to achieve “dual carbon” goals are different, the governance of different modes should focus on optimizing and strengthening restriction factors or controlling and improving of driving factors.
15. Assessment of PCDD/Fs formation and emission characteristics at a municipal solid waste incinerator for one year
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 883, 20 July 2023, 163705
Municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) has become a predominant emission source of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans (PCDD/Fs). Research focusing on the impact of operating conditions, environmental changes, and operating time on the generation and emissions of PCDD/Fs has not been resolved. To this end, this study tracked and investigated the PCDD/Fs and 17 congener emissions of a typical grate incinerator (800 t/d) continuously for one year. Results showed that the PCDD/Fs concentration at the boiler outlet, stack inlet, and bag filter, including normal and abnormal operation conditions, ranges from 2.11E-02-41.86 ng I-TEQ/Nm3, 7.00E-04-6.76 ng I-TEQ/Nm3, and 1.12-2.90E+03 ng I-TEQ/Nm3, respectively.
The 2,3,4,7,8-P5CDF has the highest contribution in all samples, in which a proportion of TEQ ranged from 30 % to 77.73 %. Moreover, by applying the correlation analysis between PCDD/Fs and operating parameters, the emission characteristic is mainly affected by incinerators and boilers during the normal period, and it is affected by the whole MSWI process under abnormal conditions. In addition, the PCDD/Fs emission from the MSWI plant gradually increases from spring to winter. This study is beneficial for supporting the control of PCDD/Fs emission reduction and assisting the operators to optimize the relevant operating parameters of the MSWI plant to achieve a stable and up-to-substandard emissions during the operation period.
16. Independent risk evaluation associated with short-term black carbon exposure on mortality in two megacities of Yangtze River Delta, China
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 880, 1 July 2023, 163273
The adverse health effects of PM2.5 have been well demonstrated by many studies. However, as a component of PM2.5, evidence on the mortality risk of black carbon (BC) is still limited. In this study, based on the data of daily mean PM2.5 concentration, BC concentration, meteorological factors, total non-accidental (all-cause) and cardiovascular mortality in Shanghai and Nanjing during 2015-2016, a semi-parameter generalized additive model (GAM) in the time series and the constituent residual approach were employed to explore the exposure-response relationship between BC and human mortality in these two megacities of Yangtze River Delta, China.
The main objective was to separate the health effects of BC from total PM2.5, and compare the difference of mortality ER related to BC original concentration and adjusted concentration after controlling PM2.5. Results showed that there were all significantly associated with daily mortality for PM2.5 and BC. The percentage excess risk (ER) increases in all-cause and cardiovascular categories were 1.68 % (95 % s 1.28, 2.08) and 2.16 % (95 % CI: 1.54, 2.79) with 1 μg/m3 increment in original BC concentration in Shanghai.
And the ER in Nanjing was smaller than that in Shanghai. After eliminating PM2.5 confounding effects by a constituent residual approach, the BC residual concentration still had a strong significant ER. The ER for BC residual in Shanghai got an obvious increase, and ER of the cardiovascular mortality for all, females and males increased by 0.55 %, 1.46 % and 0.62 %, respectively, while the ER in Nanjing decreased slightly. It also revealed that females were more sensitive to the health risk associated with short-term BC exposure than males. Our findings provide additional important evidence and ER for mortality related to independent BC exposure. Therefore, BC emission reduction should be paid more attention in air pollution control strategies to reduce BC-related health burdens.
MÔI TRƯỜNG KHU CÔNG NGHIỆP
1. Analysis of the circular economy efficiency of China’s industrial wastewater and solid waste – based on a comparison before and after the 13th Five-Year Plan
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 881, 10 July 2023, 163435
The circular economy has been incorporated into China’s Five-Year Plan as an important policy tool for sustainable development with the aim of resolving the conflicts among economic growth, energy shortages, and environmental pollution. This research introduces industrial waste emission and recycling indicators into the window two-stage DDF recycle model, explores industrial circular economy efficiency in 30 provinces of China from 2011 to 2019 in the two stages of production and recycle, and focuses on efficiency improvement and stability during the 13th Five-Year Plan period. The results show the following. (1) During the study period, especially during the 13th Five-Year Plan, the circular economy efficiency in most provinces is positively improved, and its improvement is more significant in the central and western provinces. (2) Production stage efficiency is higher than recycle stage efficiency.
Whether measured in the overall process, the production stage, or the recycle stage. In mean efficiency, the east is better than the central, and the west is the worst. (3) In terms of efficiency stability during the policy period, the central is the most stable, the east is the second most stable, and the west is the least stable. Shanghai and Tianjin present high efficiency and high stability; Zhejiang, Anhui, and Qinghai present high efficiency, but low stability; and Ningxia, Yunnan, and Xinjiang perform poorly in terms of efficiency values and stability. (4) Each province could adapt to its own situation, accelerate the adjustment of the industrial structure, optimize the energy consumption structure, and improve the overall resource utilization efficiency and recycling efficiency. The government could tilt the resource layout towards provinces with development difficulties, and meanwhile promote efficient development of recycling policies with dividends that address regional imbalances.
2. EfectroH2O: Development and evaluation of a novel treatment technology for high-brine industrial wastewater
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 883, 20 July 2023, 163479
Textile production is one of the main sources of freshwater consumption by industries worldwide. In addition, according to the world bank, 20 % of the wastewater generated globally is caused by textile wet-processing. Textile wet-processing includes the processes in textile production where garments are dyed or given the final functions like water-repellency. Several thousand chemicals were used in this process, some of which are highly toxic. Discharging untreated or insufficiently treated wastewater in water bodies results in high pollution levels, severely impacting the environment and human health.
Especially in textile-producing countries like India, environmental pollution and water consumption from textile wet-processing have severe impacts. Next to the high volume of chemicals used in textile production, the high salt concentration in textile wastewater also poses a challenge and is critical for freshwater systems. Moreover, textile wastewater is one of the most difficult to treat wastewater. Currently, used treatment technologies do not meet the requirements to treat textile wastewater.
Therefore, the further development of efficient treatment technologies for textile wastewater is critically important. Hence, in the interdisciplinary project, effect-based monitoring demonstrates the efficiency of electrically-driven water treatment processes to remove salts and micropollutants from process water (EfectroH2O), a low-energy Zero Liquid Discharge (ZLD) textile wastewater treatment technology is being developed consisting of a combination of capacitive deionization (CDI) and advanced oxidation processes (AOP).
In addition to treatment technology development, methods for evaluating the efficiency of treatment technologies also need to be improved. Currently, mainly physicochemical parameters such as pH, biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) are tested worldwide to check water quality. However, these methods are insufficient to make a statement about the toxic potential of such complex mixtures as textile wastewater. Therefore, also next to chemical analyses, effect-based methods (EBM) are used to verify the treated wastewater.
3. Resilient or environmentally friendly? Both are possible when seafood businesses prepare for long-term risks
Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 408, 1 July 2023, 137045
To ensure sustainable seafood production for future generations, seafood businesses must be resilient in the face of future shocks and stresses. Recent research suggests that by increasing alignment with principles of circular economy such as eliminating waste and regenerating natural environments, seafood companies may be able to improve their general resilience (i.e. resilience to unforeseen disruptions). Research presented here empirically explores potential links between circular economy, risk mitigation and resilience through a survey and workshops with seafood businesses in the United Kingdom.
We found that many of the seafood companies participating in our research are actively implementing a range of circular economy actions such as recycling materials and minimising the use of single-use plastics. When identifying specific risks, businesses tended to adopt short-term mitigation measures that were less likely than longer-term measures to be aligned with circular economy principles. While businesses felt confident about their ability to adapt to and survive future risks, a focus on short-term risk mitigation might reduce their capacity to plan for longer-term risks. An inability to identify and prepare for longer-term risks may also impede businesses’ ability to increase their resilience to unforeseen disruptions and lock companies into a reactive, rather than a capacity-building cycle of risk mitigation.
4. Enrichment strategies of heavy metals in the O/H/O process composed of biological fluidized bed for wastewater treatment: A case study of Cu and Zn
Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 411, 20 July 2023, 137334
Municipal sludge can be utilized as a resource despite its polluting nature. However, the presence of heavy metals lowers its resource value, and their uniform dispersion in conventional biological processes because of sludge reflux poses enormous difficulties for the subsequent separation/recovery. In this study, the enrichment strategies of Cu and Zn in simulated wastewater based on a new biological process named oxic-hydrolytic & denitrification-oxic (O1/H/O2 or O/H/O) combination were investigated and the influence mechanisms of pH, chelate, operating parameters, and denitrification reaction control were illustrated. Results showed that the amount Cu and Zn in the sludge of H reactor exceeded those of both O1 and O2 when pH of O1＜6.5. The maximum sludge-water partition coefficients (Kd) of Cu and Zn in H reactor were 3128 and 3421 times when the influent concentration of NH3-N was at a certain value (210 mg/L NH4Cl for Cu and 140 mg/L NH4Cl for Zn).
This was ascribed to the control of nitrification rate, ammonification/nitrosation in the O1 reactor, anaerobic ammonia oxidation combined with autotrophic denitrification in the H reactor, optimal hydraulic retention time (HRT) and sludge retention time (SRT). Under the pre-set conditions of water quality and operation parameters, the precipitates in the sludge were found to be Cu(OH)2, Zn(OH)2, CuS, ZnS which were theoretically and instrumentally characterized. In sum, the joint regulation of biological combination and biochemical reaction will provide new enrichment/separation strategies for heavy metals in municipal sludge management.
5. Hybrid electrocoagulation and laccase mediated treatment for efficient decolorization of effluent generated from textile industries
Environmental Research, Volume 228, 1 July 2023, 115868
Enzymatic (laccase mediated) decolorization of dyes remains inefficient for recalcitrant dyes, which can be better handled by electrocoagulation (EC). However, EC is energy intensive and produce large amount of sludge. In light of the same, present study offers a promising solution for the treatment of textile effluent meeting surface discharge norms, using hybridization of enzymatic and electrocoagulation treatment.
The findings revealed best color removal (90%) of undiluted (raw) textile effluent (4592 hazen) is achievable by employing EC using zinc-coated iron electrode at current density 25 mA cm−2 followed by partially purified laccase (LT) treatment, and activated carbon (AC) polishing at ambient conditions. Overall, the decolorization performance of Hybrid EC-LT integrated AC approach was 1.95 times better than only laccase treatment. Also, the sludge generation from Hybrid EC-LT integrated AC (0.7 g L−1) was 3.3 times lesser than EC alone (2.1 g L−1). Therefore, the present study recommends Hybrid EC-LT integrated AC could be potential approach to treat complex textile effluent sustainably with lower energy input and waste sludge generation.
6. Contemporary avenues of the Hydrogen industry: Opportunities and challenges in the eco-friendly approach
Environmental Research, Volume 229, 15 July 2023, 115963
Hydrogen (H2) is a possible energy transporter and feedstock for energy decarbonization, transportation, and chemical sectors while reducing global warming’s consequences. The predominant commercial method for producing H2 today is steam methane reforming (SMR). However, there is still room for development in process intensification, energy optimization, and environmental concerns related to CO2 emissions. Reactors using metallic membranes (MRs) can handle both problems. Compared to traditional reactors, MRs operates at substantially lower pressures and temperatures.
As a result, capital and operational costs may be significantly cheaper than traditional reactors. Furthermore, metallic membranes (MMs), particularly Pd and its alloys, naturally permit only H2 permeability, enabling the production of a stream with a purity of up to 99.999%. This review describes several methods for H2 production based on the energy sources utilized. SRM with CO2 capture and storage (CCUS), pyrolysis of methane, and water electrolysis are all investigated as process technologies. A debate based on a color code was also created to classify the purity of H2 generation. Although producing H2 using fossil fuels is presently the least expensive method, green H2 generation has the potential to become an affordable alternative in the future. From 2030 onward, green H2 is anticipated to be less costly than blue hydrogen. Green H2 is more expensive than fossil-based H2 since it uses more energy. Blue H2 has several tempting qualities, but the CCUS technology is pricey, and blue H2 contains carbon.
At this time, almost 80-95% of CO2 can be stored and captured by the CCUS technology. Nanomaterials are becoming more significant in solving problems with H2 generation and storage. Sustainable nanoparticles, such as photocatalysts and bio-derived particles, have been emphasized for H2 synthesis. New directions in H2 synthesis and nanomaterials for H2 storage have also been discussed. Further, an overview of the H2 value chain is provided at the end, emphasizing the financial implications and outlook for 2050, i.e., carbon-free H2 and zero-emission H2.
7. Implementation of green cooling/lubrication strategies in metal cutting industries: A state of the art towards sustainable future and challenges
Sustainable Materials and Technologies, Volume 36, July 2023, e00641
While the metal cutting industrial sector is essential for global economic growth, it also has a major impact, such as cutting tools, cooling and lubrication environments, improved cutting parameters, etc., on the world’s natural resources and ecosystems. The increasing demand for goods and services has resulted in a paradigm of linear production and consumption that cannot be maintained over the long term.
The need to transition towards green or sustainable manufacturing is necessary for a variety of reasons, including issues relating to occupational health, legislation governing the environment, and hazardous or dirty working conditions for employees. However, the most important reason is the waste cost associated with utilising an excessive amount of cutting fluid in metal cutting sectors. As a result, this article examines a sustainable manufacturing system built in the metal cutting sector and offers a comprehensive guide for the industrial sector.
Organisational tactics, indications, and potential roadblocks to execution are all given special attention in this review article. Further, the review article investigates the obstacles that stand in the way of environmentally friendly production. In addition to this, it investigates the criteria that are used to quantify development towards more sustainable production techniques and provides a new strategy for evaluating initiatives of this nature. It has been concluded that this in-depth analysis helps academics and researchers by detailing the green machining techniques that have been put into practise in many machining domains to ensure a clean and secure working environment.
8. Status and trends of enzyme cocktails for efficient and ecological production in the pulp and paper industry
Journal of Cleaner Production, Available online 21 July 2023, 138196
The pulp and paper industry (PPI) is one of the main pillars of the global economy, but its high energy consumption, pollution, and emissions necessitate urgent transformation. Various types of enzymes can play a crucial role in improving pulp performance, reducing energy consumption, as well as decreasing pollution, which benefits a lot to clean and sustainable development.
Due to the complex and numerous substrates in the papermaking processes, enzyme cocktails are often more effective single enzymes. In addition, the effect of enzyme cocktails is affected to varying degrees by the complex environment, including the different papermaking process, pH, temperature, residence time, chemical additives and auxiliary technologies. In this review, we provide a brief summary of hydrolases and oxidases frequently applyed in PPI, along with a list of auxiliary enzymes and proteins with potential applications in this field.
More attention is given to enzyme cocktails for various processes such as pulping, refining/beating, deinking, bleaching, and stickies control. The factors influencing enzyme efficiency are analyzed and progresses in this area are reviewed. Further, cutting-edge biotechnologies are highlighted to improve the robustness of enzymes, which could expand the market share of enzyme preparations. By and large, studying the mechanisms and influencing factors of enzyme cocktails will facilitate the transition of the PPI to a greener, low-carbon, economical and energy-efficient industry.
9. Comparison of the centralized and decentralized environmentally constrained economic dispatch methods of coal-fired generators: A case study for South Korea
Energy, Volume 275, 15 July 2023, 127364
Since the climate crisis, global concern about greenhouse gas emissions has increased. Many countries have set nationally determined contributions to limit global temperature rise. In the electricity market, the need for environmentally constrained economic dispatch has emerged to directly reduce greenhouse gas. Environmental shutdown is one method of addressing annual environmentally constrained economic dispatch by scheduling shutdowns for coal-fired generators.
Environmental shutdown can be categorized into two methods by decision-makers. In the centralized method, the system operator sets the shutdown schedules for all coal-fired generators. In the decentralized method, each generation company makes the shutdown schedules for its coal-fired generators to maximize profit.
The decentralized method is modeled as bi-level optimization because the market price is related to profit and depends on the shutdown schedule. In this study, the bi-level profit-maximizing model is replaced by linear single-level optimization using a primal-dual approach. Furthermore, in the competitive market, the shutdown schedule of one company mutually affects that of competitors, so the Nash equilibrium is found as the final solution. These methods are applied in the Korean electricity market. Consequently, the decentralized method for greenhouse gas reduction increases the market price and decreases the system reliability compared to the centralized method.
10. Imperative assessment on the current status of rubber wastewater treatment: Research development and future perspectives
Chemosphere, Volume 338, October 2023, 139512
The environment has been significantly impacted by the rubber industry through the release of large quantities of wastewater during various industrial processes. Therefore, it is crucial to treat the wastewater from the rubber industry before discharging it into natural water bodies.
With the understanding that alarmingly depleting freshwater sources need to be preserved for future generations, this paper reviews the status of the rubber industry and the pollution caused by them, focusing mainly on water pollution. The review pays special attention to the recent advancements in wastewater treatment techniques for rubber industry wastewater categorizing them into pre-treatment, secondary, and tertiary treatment processes while discussing the advantages and disadvantages.
Through a comprehensive analysis of existing literature, it was determined that organic content and NH4+ are the most frequently focused water quality parameters, and despite some treatment methods demonstrating superior performance, many of the methods still face limitations and require further research to improve systems to handle high organic loading on the treatment systems and to implement them in industrial scale. The paper also explores the potential of utilizing untreated or treated wastewater and byproducts of wastewater treatment in contributing towards achieving several United Nations sustainable development goals (UN-SDGs); SDG 6, SDG 7, SDG 9, and SDG 12.
11. Nonlinear low dose hematotoxicity of benzene; a pooled analyses of two studies among Chinese exposed workers
Environment International, Volume 177, July 2023, 108007
Impairment of the hematopoietic system is one of the primary adverse health effects from exposure to benzene. We previously have shown that exposure to benzene at low levels (<1 ppm) affects the blood forming system and that these effects were proportionally stronger at lower versus higher levels of benzene exposure. This observation is potentially explained by saturation of enzymatic systems.
Here we extend these analyses by detailed modeling of the exposure response association of benzene and its major metabolites (i.e. catechol, muconic acid, phenol, and hydroquinone) on peripheral white blood cell (WBC) counts and its major cell-subtypes (i.e. granulocytes, lymphocytes, and monocytes) using two previously published cross-sectional studies among occupationally exposed Chinese workers.
Supra-linear exposure response associations were observed between air benzene concentrations (range ∼ 0.1 – 100 ppm) and WBC counts and its cell-subtypes, with a larger than proportional decrease in cell counts at lower than at higher levels of benzene exposure. The hematotoxicity associations were largely similar in shape when the analyses were repeated with benzene urinary metabolites suggesting that enzymatic saturation is not a full explanation of the observed non-linearity with WBC endpoints.
We hypothesize that the flattening of the exposure response curve especially at higher benzene exposure levels may reflect a response by the bone marrow to maintain hematopoietic homeostasis. Toxicity to the bone marrow and an induced hyper-proliferative response could both contribute to risk of subsequently developing a hematopoietic malignancy. Additional work is needed to explore this hypothesis.
12. Implementation of green cooling/lubrication strategies in metal cutting industries: A state of the art towards sustainable future and challenges
Sustainable Materials and Technologies, Volume 36, July 2023, e00641
While the metal cutting industrial sector is essential for global economic growth, it also has a major impact, such as cutting tools, cooling and lubrication environments, improved cutting parameters, etc., on the world’s natural resources and ecosystems. The increasing demand for goods and services has resulted in a paradigm of linear production and consumption that cannot be maintained over the long term. The need to transition towards green or sustainable manufacturing is necessary for a variety of reasons, including issues relating to occupational health, legislation governing the environment, and hazardous or dirty working conditions for employees.
However, the most important reason is the waste cost associated with utilising an excessive amount of cutting fluid in metal cutting sectors. As a result, this article examines a sustainable manufacturing system built in the metal cutting sector and offers a comprehensive guide for the industrial sector. Organisational tactics, indications, and potential roadblocks to execution are all given special attention in this review article. Further, the review article investigates the obstacles that stand in the way of environmentally friendly production. In addition to this, it investigates the criteria that are used to quantify development towards more sustainable production techniques and provides a new strategy for evaluating initiatives of this nature. It has been concluded that this in-depth analysis helps academics and researchers by detailing the green machining techniques that have been put into practise in many machining domains to ensure a clean and secure working environment.
13. Seasonal variation of mercury in settled dust from brick kiln pollution in Sonora, Mexico: Ecological risk and human health implication
Atmospheric Pollution Research, Volume 14, Issue 7, July 2023, 101787
Seasonal variation in mercury (Hg) spatial distribution in dust was investigated in an arid area with documented resuspension and erosion events. We estimated Hg concentration in settled dust collected at elementary schools associated with dry deposition, and we assessed potential sources and linked health risks. Dust samples (n = 32) were collected from schools close to high traffic roads, industrial corridors, railways, and residential areas during the pre- and post-monsoon period. We determined the total Hg concentration in settled dust by inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS), and used various geochemical indices to analyze the Hg-source apportionment. The average contents of Hg were 0.52 mg kg−1 in the pre-monsoon and 0.28 mg kg−1 in the post-monsoon period.
School dust samples showed moderately to extremely contamination of Hg, with the highest content (1.53 mg kg−1) occurring during pre-monsoon. The spatial distribution identified high contamination of Hg in the northern area of the city, which is characterized by brickyard activities. The presence of a bull’s eye pattern of Hg during the dry season (pre-monsoon) was evidenced only by the seasonal sampling and related to the emissions from kiln brick production. On the other hand, the HYSPLIT simulation model shows a similar distribution pattern between seasons with particle trajectories going to the north towards the US-Mexico border. Results observed in this study indicate low adverse health effect (HI < 1) but suggest health concerns to children and adults. Finally, this research highlights the potential accumulation of Hgdust during the dry season at an arid climate.
14. A risk assessment on Zostera chilensis, the last relict of marine angiosperms in the South-East Pacific Ocean, due to the development of the desalination industry in Chile
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 883, 20 July 2023, 163538
Seagrasses, which are considered among the most ecologically valuable and endangered coastal ecosystems, have a narrowly limited distribution in the south-east Pacific, where Zostera chilensis is the only remaining relict. Due to water scarcity, desalination industry has grown in the last decades in the central-north coasts of Chile, which may be relevant to address in terms of potential impacts on benthic communities due to their associated high-salinity brine discharges to subtidal ecosystems. In this work, we assessed ecophysiological and cellular responses to desalination-extrapolable hypersalinity conditions on Z. chilensis. Mesocosms experiments were performed for 10 days, where plants were exposed to 3 different salinity treatments: 34 psu (control), 37 psu and 40 psu.
Photosynthetic performance, H2O2 accumulation, and ascorbate content (reduced and oxidized) were measured, as well as relative gene expression of enzymes related to osmotic regulation and oxidative stress; these, at 1, 3, 6 and 10 days. Z. chilensis showed a decrease in photosynthetic parameters such as electron transport rate (ETRmax) and saturation irradiance (EkETR) under hypersalinity treatments, while non-photochemical quenching (NPQmax) presented an initial increment and a subsequent decline at 40 psu. H2O2 levels increased with hypersalinity, while ascorbate and dehydroascorbate only increased under 37 psu, although decreased along the experimental period. Increased salinities also triggered the expression of genes related to ion transport and osmolyte syntheses, but salinity-dependent up-regulated genes were mostly those related to the reactive oxygen species metabolism. The relict seagrass Z. chilensis has shown to withstand increased salinities that may be extrapolable to desalination effects in the short-term. As the latter is not fully clear in the long-term, and considering the restricted distribution and ecological importance, direct brine discharges to Z. chilensis meadows may not be recommended.
15. Successive alkali diffusion ceramic reactor: Long-term removal of acidity and heavy metals in acid mine drainage
Journal of Water Process Engineering, Volume 53, July 2023, 103858
A novel alkali diffusion reactor using ceramic porous media (ceram-ADR) was newly developed for long-term treatment of acidity and heavy metals in acid mine drainage (AMD) without external energy. The batch and column tests were performed to investigate the neutralization capabilities of six alkaline chemicals (i.e., MgO, CaCO3, CaO, SiO2, Na2CO3, and NaHCO3) and the effects on pore size and hydraulic retention time (HRT) of ceram-ADRs. Among these six alkaline chemicals, the ceram-ADR containing NaHCO3 yielded a suitable pH range for water quality guideline (pH values from 5.0 to 9.5) for an HRT of 1-2 days as well as had the best efficiency in terms of consistent alkaline diffusion and long-term heavy metal removal (>99 %). The precipitation process was found to be a major mechanism in the removal of heavy metals. Based on the continuous column tests, it was evaluated that the ceram-ADR successfully treated three consecutive runs with approximately 340 bed volumes of AMD for neutralization and heavy metal removal, indicating that the ceram-ADR can be maintained for over three years without a lapse in performance.
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